The authoritative parenting style:
The authoritative parenting style: The authoritative parenting style is an approach to child-rearing that combines warmth, sensitivity, and the setting of limits. Parents use positive reinforcement and reasoning to guide children.
They avoid resorting to threats or punishments. This approach is common in educated, middle class families, and linked with superior child outcomes throughout the world.
Kids raised by authoritative parents are more likely to become independent, self-reliant, socially accepted, academically successful, and well-behaved. They are less likely to report depression and anxiety, and less likely to engage in antisocial behavior like delinquency and drug use.
Research suggests that having at least one authoritative parent can make a big difference Fletcher et al But what exactly sets the authoritative parenting style apart?
How is it different from authoritarian parenting? And why, exactly, do researchers think authoritativeness breeds success? Here is an overview of the evidence.
The original definition The authoritative parenting style was first defined by Diane Baumrind, who proposed a new system for classifying parents. She recognized three major approaches to parental control: Permissive parents are reluctant to impose rules and standards, preferring to let their kids regulate themselves.
Authoritarian parents demand a sort of blind obedience from their children. Authoritative parents take a different, more moderate approach that emphasizes setting high standards, being nurturing and responsive, and showing respect for children as independent, rational beings.
The authoritative parent expects maturity and cooperation, and offers children lots of emotional support. This combination distinguishes the authoritative parenting style from both authoritarianism and permissiveness.
Like permissive parents, authoritative parents are responsive, nurturing, and involved. But unlike permissive parents, authoritative parents don't let their kids get away with bad behavior. Authoritative parents take a firm stand, expecting their kids to behave responsibly. Like authoritarian parents, authoritative parents enforce rules.
But unlike authoritarian parents, authoritative parents show high levels of warmth, and they emphasize the reasons for rules. When kids make mistakes or misbehave, they attempt to reason with their children. Authoritative parents encourage a verbal give-and-take, and explain the consequences of good and bad behavior.
Authoritative parents are also less likely to control their children through harsh or arbitrary punishments, shaming, or the withdrawal of love. Put another way, the authoritative parenting style reflects a balance between two values--freedom and responsibility. Authoritative parents want to encourage independence in their kids.
But they also want to foster self-discipline, maturity, and a respect for others. Some researchers sum it up this way: Authoritative parents are both highly responsive and very demanding Maccoby and Martin That's the classic definition of the authoritative parenting style. And--using this definition--researchers have identified the authoritative parents throughout the world.
But there is some variation across cultures.
The authoritative parenting style isn't always about democracy In Western countries like Australia and the United States, authoritative care-giving includes certain democratic practices--like taking children's preferences into account when making family plans, or encouraging kids to express their own, possibly divergent, opinions.
In other places, these democratic elements may be absent. Nor did Chinese parents encourage kids to voice their own opinions--not when they disagreed with those of the parents Robinson et al But one key trait--reasoning with kids--was found in all four countries Robinson et al It seems that explaining the reasons for rules, and talking with kids who misbehave, is a widespread practice.
This aspect of the authoritative parenting style has been called "inductive discipline," and there is evidence that it helps kids become more empathic, helpful, conscientious, and kind to others Krevans and Gibbs ; Knafo and Plomin It may also help prevent children from developing aggressive or defiant behavior problems Choe et al ; Arsenio and Ramos-Marcuse And research hints that inductive discipline promotes the development of morality Patrick and Gibbs Applying the definition to the real world: How can you tell if you're an authoritative parent?Authoritative is the style where the parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a child.
Authoritarian is the style of parenting in which the parent is rigid and . Parents, in this context, include biological and adoptive parents, as well as state-appointed guardians and custodial grandparents.
Nothing in this statement should be interpreted as in any way condoning the physical, sexual, or emotional abuse or neglect of children. The authoritative parenting style is an approach to child-rearing that combines warmth, sensitivity, and the setting of limits.
Parents use positive reinforcement and reasoning to guide children. They avoid resorting to threats or punishments. in the United States (Chao, , Creveling et al., ). Steinberg, Lamborn, Dornbusch, and Darling () in their assessment of authoritative parenting, parental.
Nevertheless, there is remarkable agreement across studies. From Argentina to China, from the United States to Pakistan, the authoritative parenting style is consistently associated with superior outcomes (Steinberg ).
Undergraduates with authoritative parents were the most likely to say they would talk with their parents.
Students with authoritarian parents--like students from permissive families--were more likely to reference their peers (Bednar et al ).