An introduction to the history of precision machine tool

Introduction to Lathe Lathe Machine machine tool which spins a block of material to perform various operations such as cutting, sandingknurling, drilling or deformation with tools that are applied to the work piece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis or rotation.

An introduction to the history of precision machine tool

An introduction to the history of precision machine tool

Advances in mass production could not be made without the development of the machine-tool industry—that is, the fabrication of machinery that could make machines.

Though some basic devices such as the woodworking lathe had existed for centuries, their evolution into… History Before the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, hand tools were used to cut and shape materials for the production of goods such as cooking utensils, wagons, ships, furniture, and other products.

After the advent of the steam enginematerial goods were produced by power-driven machines that could only be manufactured by machine tools. Machine tools capable of producing dimensionally accurate parts in large quantities and jigs and fixtures for holding the work and guiding the tool were the indispensable innovations that made mass production and interchangeable parts realities in the 19th century.

The earliest steam engines suffered from the imprecision of early machine tools, and the large cast cylinders of the engines often were bored inaccurately by machines powered by waterwheels and originally designed to bore cannon. Within 50 years of the first steam engines, the basic machine tools, with all the fundamental features required for machining heavy metal parts, were designed and developed.

Some of them were adaptations of earlier woodworking machines; the metal lathe derived from woodcutting lathes used in France as early as the 16th century.

In John Wilkinson of England built a precision machine for boring engine cylinders. In Henry Maudslayalso of England and one of the great inventive geniuses of his day, designed and built a screw-cutting engine lathe. Geared to the spindle of the lathe, the lead screw advanced the tool at a constant rate of speed and guaranteed accurate screw threads.

By Maudslay had equipped his lathe with 28 change gears that cut threads of various pitches by controlling the ratio of the lead-screw speed to the spindle speed.

A few years later, inNasmyth invented the steam hammer for forging heavy pieces.

Machine-tool characteristics

Britain tried to keep its lead in machine-tool development by prohibiting exports, but the attempt was foredoomed by industrial development elsewhere. British tools were exported to continental Europe and to the United States despite the prohibition, and new tools were developed outside Britain.

Notable among these was the milling machine invented by Eli Whitneyproduced in the United States inand used by Simeon North to manufacture firearms.

The first fully universal milling machine was built in by J. Brown of the United States and was used to cut helical flutes in twist drills. The turret lathealso developed in the United States in the middle of the 19th century, was fully automatic in some operations, such as making screws, and it presaged the momentous developments of the 20th century.

Various gear-cutting machines reached their full development in when F. Fellows, an American, designed a gear shaper that could rapidly turn out almost any type of gear. The production of artificial abrasives in the late 19th century opened up a new field of machine tools, that of grinding machines.

Norton of Massachusetts dramatically illustrated the potential of the grinding machine by making one that could grind an automobile crankshaft in 15 minutes, a process that previously had required five hours.

By the end of the 19th century a complete revolution had taken place in the working and shaping of metals that created the basis for mass production and an industrialized society. The 20th century has witnessed the introduction of numerous refinements of machine tools, such as multiple-point cutters for milling machines, the development of automated operations governed by electronic and fluid-control systems, and nonconventional techniques, such as electrochemical and ultrasonic machining.

Yet even today the basic machine tools remain largely the legacy of the 19th century. Machine-tool characteristics All machine tools must provide work-holding and tool-holding devices and means for accurately controlling the depth of the cut.

The relative motion between the cutting edge of the tool and the work is called the cutting speed; the speed in which uncut material is brought into contact with the tool is called the feed motion. Means must be provided for varying both. Because an overheated tool may lose its cutting ability, temperatures must be controlled.

The amount of heat that is generated depends on the shearing force and the cutting speed. Because the shearing force varies with the material being cut and the tool material varies in its tolerance for high temperatures, the optimum cutting speed depends both on the material being cut and the cutting-tool material.

It is also influenced by the rigidity of the machine, the shape of the workpiece, and the depth of the cut. Cutting tools Metal-cutting tools are classified as single point or multiple point.Thus was born a machine tool capable of milling, drilling, tapping, mandrinar, etc., which includes a storage of tools and a system of automatic change of the same, so the numerical control orders.

The 20th century has witnessed the introduction of numerous refinements of machine tools, such as multiple-point cutters for milling machines, the development of automated operations governed by electronic and fluid-control systems, and nonconventional techniques, such as electrochemical and ultrasonic machining.

History of the Grinding Machine: A Historical Study in Tools and Precision Production "From the polished artifacts of prehistoric times Mr. Woodbury traces the development of methods, abrasives, and the machine tools which interdependently contributed to the advanced grinding techniques used today.5/5(2).

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The 20th century has witnessed the introduction of numerous refinements of machine tools, such as multiple-point cutters for milling machines, the development of automated operations governed by electronic and fluid-control systems, and nonconventional techniques, such as electrochemical and ultrasonic machining.

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