The West is well aware of Russian actions in Ukraine that began with Russian armed forces annexing the Crimean peninsula in Marchas well as initiation of the war in Donbas, which unfortunately is still ongoing Shares By L. Ambassador Donald Lu has had a long and polarizing history in Albania. Todd Wood There are some truths that I strive to preach, for lack of a better word, in today's information-culture wars propagated in our corrupt mainstream media. Here are a few:
Abstract The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored.
Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed.
More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: For example, although the alleged relationship between childhood vaccines and autism has been the dominant controversy over child immunization of recent years, British anxiety has centered on the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, whereas Americans have focused much more on the role of mercury in vaccine preservatives.
It is not my intent to answer whether mercury in vaccines explains the increasing prevalence of autism; the IOM has already determined over the course of two reviews that available evidence fails to support such a conclusion. Why was the mercury-containing preservative thimerosal introduced in infant vaccines in the first place?
Why was its use not questioned until the late s, long after the toxic effects of mercury had been recognized? These three tributaries, corresponding to the histories of vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism, are examined successively to illuminate why various groups responded so differently to the debates beginning in that year.
In the early 20th century, investigators synthesized a new class of compounds they claimed to be both more effective and less toxic, the organomercurials.
Often brilliantly colored, these products soon found widespread usage, from operating suites to home medicine cabinets. The emerging pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly and Company provided grant support for its synthesis at the University of Chicago and in patented it under the trade name Merthiolate.
Jamieson conducted extensive in vitro testing, showing that thimerosal was 40 to 50 times as effective as phenol against Staphylococcus aureus. The animals appeared to tolerate significant doses—up to 20 mg per kg body weight in rabbits and still higher in rats—without apparent injury.
From a therapeutic standpoint, the trial was a failure, but investigators were struck by how well the patients seemed to tolerate such high doses. Vaccines would become an especially important niche. One of the most troublesome safety issues afflicting early 20th-century child immunization was that of bacterial contamination.
This could easily occur on a sporadic basis, when general practitioners might have to draw vaccines from multidose vials under poor hygienic conditions. Contamination of entire lots could be much more spectacular. In Columbia, South Carolina, ina tainted batch of typhoid vaccine stored at room temperature caused 68 severe reactions, 26 abscesses, and 4 deaths.
A still more disturbing incident took place in in Queensland, Australia, where 12 of 21 children inoculated with contaminated diphtheria vaccine died of multiple staphylococcal abscesses and toxemia.
The need for effective preservatives was readily apparent and represented one of the most important safety issues for the promoters of new vaccines. The problem with existing preservatives such as phenol and cresol was that they often reduced the potency of the biological products they were intended to protect.
By contrast, thimerosal not only inhibited bacterial growth in vaccines and antisera at concentrations as low as 1: Its defenders pointed to their own studies and the simple fact that contamination incidents had become exceedingly uncommon following its introduction.Apr 05, · While mainstream science discounts vaccinations as a cause, members of the National Autism Association feel vaccinations have triggered autism in a subset of children, and that an overly.
There is every reason to think that those numbers—gathered before the vaccine-autism controversy reached anything like its current intensity—have risen since. In the United States, population pockets with low vaccination rates (such as in Boulder, Colorado, and Ashland, Oregon) have existed for some time, and the great fear among many.
In this week’s eSkeptic, Matthew P. Normand and Jesse Dallery, Ph.D. address one of the hottest topics in the news this week: vaccination and autism, considering the best scientific evidence to date on the possible connection.
As you shall see, the scientists considering the link, Matthew P. Normand and Jesse Dallery, provide an excellent summary of what we know and do not know. The causes of autism.
Along with controversies on the treatment of autism are those caused by theories as to what causes it. There are people who get very excited one way or the other about the following questions: Just as the issue of recovered memories of abuse has raised controversy, the fact that some people disbelieve the reliability.
My first reaction when French President Emmanuel Macron said this week that the European Union needed its own army to defend against potential adversaries — including the United States — was. Why Does the Vaccine/Autism Controversy Live On? Research has soundly disproved the alleged connection, yet fears about vaccines continue to be a major risk to public health.