Leaping about like a bunny wabbit. What it is to be normal again! My daughter from my first and, it has to be said, only marriage is stuck at Heathrow at the Radison Hotel, getting into the festive mood on room service and the mini-bar. She "may" get out this pm.
Background[ edit ] The exoticism of Saracen invaders is stressed in this detail from The Saracen Army outside Paris, by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeldpainted —27, which actually depicts a fictional incident from Ludovico Ariosto Cassino Massimo, Rome  The Battle of Tours followed two decades of Umayyad conquests in Europe which had begun with the invasion of the Visigothic Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula in These were followed by military expeditions into the Frankish territories of Gaulformer provinces of the Roman Empire.
Umayyad military campaigns reached northward into Aquitaine and Burgundyincluding a major engagement at Bordeaux and a raid on Autun.
Charles's victory is widely believed to have stopped the northward advance of Umayyad forces from the Iberian Peninsula and to have preserved Christianity in Europe during a period when Muslim rule was overrunning the remains of the Byzantine and Persian Empires.
The number of troops in each army is not known. The Mozarabic Chronicle ofa Latin contemporary source which describes the battle in greater detail than any other Latin or Arabic source, states that "the people of Austrasia [the Frankish forces], greater in number of soldiers and formidably armed, killed the king, Abd ar-Rahman",  which agrees with many Arab and Muslim historians.
However, virtually all Western sources disagree, estimating the Franks as numbering 30, less than half the Muslim force. Drawing on non-contemporary Muslim sources, Creasy describes the Umayyad forces as 80, strong or more. Writing inPaul K.
Davis estimates the Umayyad forces at 80, and the Franks at about 30,  while noting that modern historians have estimated the strength of the Umayyad army at Tours at between 20—80, Schoenfeld, rejecting the older figures of 60—, Umayyads and 75, Franks, contends that "estimates that the Umayyads had over fifty thousand troops and the Franks even more are logistically impossible.
Both Davis and Hanson point out that both armies had to live off the countryside, neither having a commissary system sufficient to provide supplies for a campaign.
Other sources give the following estimates: In spite of wildly varying estimates of the Muslim force, he places that army as around 20,—25, Other estimates also range up to 80, with 50, not an uncommon Triumph tours plan case.
Paul the Deacon reported correctly in his History of the Lombards written around that the Liber Pontificalis mentioned these casualty figures in relation to Odo's victory at Toulouse though he claimed that Charles Martel fought in the battle alongside Odobut later writers, probably "influenced by the Continuations of Fredegarattributed the Muslims casualties solely to Charles Martel, and the battle in which they fell became unequivocally that of Poitiers.
The Umayyad Caliphate, at the time of the Battle of Tours, was perhaps the world's foremost military power. Great expansion of the Caliphate occurred under the reign of the Umayyads. Muslim armies pushed east across Persia and west across North Africa through the late 7th century. The Muslim empire under the Umayyads was now a vast domain that ruled a diverse array of peoples.
It had destroyed what had been the two foremost military powers, the Sasanian Empirewhich it absorbed completely, and the greater part of the Byzantine Empireincluding Syria, Armenia and North Africa, although Leo the Isaurian stemmed the tide when he defeated the Umayyads at the Battle of Akroinontheir final campaign in Anatolia.
During most of his tenure in office as commander-in-chief of the Franks, it consisted of north and eastern France AustrasiaNeustria and Burgundymost of western Germany, and the Low Countries Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. The Frankish realm had begun to progress towards becoming the first real imperial power in western Europe since the fall of Rome.
However, it continued to struggle against external forces such as the Saxons, Frisians, and other opponents such as the Basque-Aquitanians led by Odo the Great Old French: EudesDuke over Aquitaine and Vasconia.
Umayyad conquests from Hispania[ edit ] The "Age of the Caliphs ", showing Umayyad dominance stretching from the Middle East to the Iberian Peninsula, including the port of Narbonnec.
Septimania runs along the Mediterranean southeast coast from the Spanish border, and Aquitaine is along the Atlantic west coast running north from Spain. The Umayyad troops, under Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlanithe governor-general of al-Andalusoverran Septimania byfollowing their sweep up the Iberian Peninsula.
Al-Samh ibn Malik was mortally wounded. This defeat did not stop incursions into old Roman Gaul, as Moorish forces, soundly based in Narbonne and easily resupplied by sea, struck eastwards in the s, penetrating as far as Autun in Burgundy in To seal the alliance, Uthman was given Odo's daughter Lampagie in marriage, and Moorish raids across the PyreneesOdo's southern border, ceased.
During the following Battle of the River Garonnethe Chronicle of  commented that "God alone knows the number of the slain". It appears that the Umayyads were not aware of the true strength of the Franks.
The Umayyad forces were not particularly concerned about any of the Germanic tribes, including the Franks, and the Arab chronicles of that age show that awareness of the Franks as a growing military power only came after the Battle of Tours.
Further, the Umayyads appear not to have scouted northward for potential foes, for if they had, they surely would have noted Charles Martel as a force to be reckoned with in his own account, because of his growing domination of much of Europe since Umayyad advance towards the Loire[ edit ] Inthe Umayyad advance force was proceeding north towards the Loire River, having outpaced their supply train and a large part of their army.
Having easily destroyed all resistance in that part of Gaul, the invading army had split off into several raiding parties, while the main body advanced more slowly. The Umayyads delayed their campaign late in the year probably because the army needed to live off the land as they advanced.
They had to wait until the area's wheat harvest was ready and then until a reasonable amount of the harvested and stored. The reason why Odo was defeated so easily at Bordeaux and Garonne, but had won 11 years earlier at the Battle of Toulouse is simple.
At Toulouse, Odo managed a surprise attack against an overconfident and unprepared foe.
The Umayyad forces were mostly infantry, and what cavalry they did have were never mobilized. As Herman of Carinthia wrote in one of his translations of a history of al-Andalus, Odo managed a highly successful encircling envelopment which took the attackers totally by surprise — the result was a chaotic slaughter of the Muslim forces.Prime Minister Theresa May's foreign minister and Brexit negotiator quit on Monday in protest at her plans to keep close trade ties with the European Union after Britain leaves the bloc, stirring.
Davis had earlier called May’s plan dangerous and said it would give “too much away, too easily” to EU negotiators. May replaced him with another Brexit campaigner, junior minister Dominic Raab. Experience the Heart of Italy on a Rick Steves tour!
In 9 days, you'll tour Florence, Rome, Lucca, Volterra, and the Cinque Terre. Join us! The Plan. A normal weekend would shape up like this: You will make your own way down to the Chateau in order to arrive here on the Thursday afternoon.
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