Writing a reflection paper about buddhism

Namaz-e-Kas00f is offered when………. Namaz-e-Istasqa is a prayer for……Rain

Writing a reflection paper about buddhism

Mesopotamia Mesopotamian civilizations from the 3rd to the 1st millennium bce produced a rich literature dealing with death and hell, much of it designed to impress upon the hearer the vast gulf separating the living from the dead and the fragility of the cosmic order on which vitality and fertility depend.

In Mesopotamian traditions, hell is described as a distant land of no return, a house of dust where the dead dwell without distinction of rank or merit, and a sealed fortress, typically of seven gates, barred against invasion or escape.

Dumuzi and his consort Inanna Akkadian: Ishtarwho in her various aspects is the mistress of date clusters and granaries, the patroness of prostitutes and alehouses, a goddess associated with the planet Venus and spring thunderstorms, and a deity of fertility, sexual love, and war.

Inanna is also the sister of Ereshkigalqueen of the dead. An impulsive goddess, Inanna, according to some versions of the mythis said to have threatened, in a fit of piqueto crush the gates of hell and let the dead overrun the earth. Finally, Inanna falls naked and powerless before Ereshkigal, who hangs her up like so much meat upon a drying hook.

Drought descends upon the earth as a result, but the gods help revive Inanna, who escapes by offering her husband as a replacement.

This ransom secures the fecundity of the earth and the integrity of the grain stores by reinforcing the boundary between hell and earth.

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Egypt The tombs, pyramids, and necropolises of ancient Egypt attest to an extraordinary concern for the state of the dead, who, in sharp contrast to Mesopotamian belief, are described as living on in a multiplicity of forms and locations suitable to their rank and worth—in or near the grave, in the desert regions of the west, in the fertile fields of Earu, in the heavens with the midday sun and circumpolar stars, or under the earth, where the sun travels by night.

As the mortuary cult of Osiris developed and the prerogative of surviving death extended from royalty to common people, greater attention focused on the underworld. Texts such as the Book of the Deadthe Book of Amduat, and the Book of Gates exhaustively describe the perilous journey through the 12 zones of the underworld corresponding to the 12 hours of night and the harrowing judgment over which Osiris presides.

The deceased needed both magical and moral power to be acquitted of offenses when appearing before Osiris. Elaborate ritual provisions were made, therefore, to translate the deceased from a mortal to an immortal condition; they included mummifying the body, adorning the tomb with prayers and offerings, and equipping the deceased with spells, amulets, and formulaic affidavits of innocence to win safe passage and ensure success at the divine tribunal.

Those who succeeded won immortality by identification with Osiris or with the sun. Those who failed were devoured by a crocodile-headed monster, tormented by demons, or worse; yet rarely is there the suggestion of eternal condemnation. The tomb remained a place where the dead could be comforted or appeased by the living, and the mortuary texts were a constant reminder of the need to prepare for the final passage.

Greece and Rome In Archaic Greece c. The house of Hades is a labyrinth of dark, cold, and joyless halls, surrounded by locked gates and guarded by the hellhound Cerberus. The untimely dead and the improperly buried suffer more than do common shades, and notorious sinners such as Tantalus and Sisyphus are tormented for their crimes; nonetheless, the Homeric Hades is, generally speaking, indifferently unpleasant for all.

Hades and Persephone in the underworld, interior of a red-figure cup, Greek, from Vulci, a town of the ancient Etruscans, c. Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum In the late Archaic periodhowever, Greek traditions began to envision a greater divergence of paths in the afterlife.

The mysteries of Demeter at Eleusis, among other esoteric cults, claimed that adherents would enjoy a heavenly immortality, while those outside the cult would sink into the gloom of Hades.

The cult of Dionysus represented Hades as a place of torment from which only initiates could escape; there, according to some ancient traditions, Persephone punished humankind for the death of her son, Dionysus. The Orphic movement so called for its association with the hero Orpheuswho ventured into Hades and returned to earth spun vivid accounts of judgment, retributionand metempsychosis.

Gold tablets found buried in graves throughout Greece and southern Italy, dating back to the 4th century bce, offer an Orphic account of the geography of the otherworld, warning the deceased to shun the waters of forgetfulness and to recite the passwords that admit one to the company of the blessed.

Philosophers and moralists such as Plato and Cicero found in these myths and mysteries rich material for reflection on the nature of justice and the value of disciplined detachment from the material world.

writing a reflection paper about buddhism

Throughout the Classical c. Further attention to the structure of hell came during the first centuries of the Common Era, as a rising tide of eschatological thinking, fed by currents of thought from western Asia, swept through the Roman world.

Iranian and Zoroastrian eschatology Among the Aryan peoples who migrated to the Iranian plateau in the middle of the 2nd millennium bce, a priestly sacrificial religion arose which held that the world is the field of incessant struggle between the ahuras gods of light, purity, and order and the daevas demons of darkness, pollution, and disorder.

Zoroastrian end-time accounts describe the coming of one or more cosmic saviours, the resurrection of the dead, a final passage through purgatorial rivers of molten metal, and a resounding defeat of all the demonic powers. The Zoroastrian hell is presided over by Yimathe first victim of death, and is home to all that is evil, dark, corrupt, cold, and hostile to life.

During the interval between death and resurrectionthere is a preliminary judgment in which the dead have their deeds weighed in a balance. It is likened to a vast house whose entrance is guarded, like family burial sites, by gates and iron bolts; to a prison in which the dead are held captive by strong cords; to an insatiable beast with spreading jaws; and also to a watery abyss.

Once in Sheol, the dead are cut off from their living kin and from cultic relationship to God. Cotton Nero CIV, folio 39 ; in the British Library Courtesy of the trustees of the British Library At least in the postexilic portions of the Hebrew Bible those written after the Babylonian captivitydeath does not hold the same fate for all.

In some postbiblical Jewish writings, Gehenna, the incineration ground where children had once been sacrificed to the god Molochemerges as a realm of postmortem punishment more like hell than Sheol.

In Gehenna the unjust dead would suffer a fiery torment of duration and severity proportionate to their crimes. During the period from the Maccabee wars — bce to the compilation of the Mishnah early 3rd century cewriters increasingly speculated about the afterlife, producing apocalypses that featured dramatic visionary journeys through heaven and hell.

The focus of traditional Jewish eschatologynow as in the past, is on the messianic age, when the world will be remade into a dwelling place fit for the Divine Presence. Christianity The early Christians proclaimed that Christ had conquered death, opening the door to resurrection and heavenly immortality.

writing a reflection paper about buddhism

The defeat of death does not necessarily mean the immediate abolition of hell, however. In the great eschatological discourse of Matthew 25, Jesus announces that the Son of Man will come in glory to judge the nations, to separate the sheep from the goats, and to consign sinners to everlasting fire.This is why Mustachianism is mostly about money and health – it’s supposed to be a bridge over the traps laid out by consumerism, so you can step over and move on up to the happier parts of the pyramid: family, confidence, and self actualization.

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Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha. Ahimsa, a term meaning 'not to injure', is a primary virtue in Buddhism.. Nirvana is the earliest and most common term used to describe the goal of the Buddhist path and the ultimate eradication of dukkha—nature of life that innately includes "suffering.

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Buddhism - Wikipedia